Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA)
  • Qualitative diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases
  • Location of lesion Lumen diameter of the narrowest lumen and reference vessels before endovascular treatment
  • Lumen diameter of the narrowest and reference vessels after endovascular treatment Length of stenosis
  • Detail description of lesions such as calcification analysis, intraplaque hemorrhage, and plaque rupture
  • Length of stenosis
  • Description of cerebrovascular anatomic variation
Magnetic resonance image (MRI)
  • Accurate localization of cerebral infarction
  • Mechanism analysis of cerebral infarction
  • The number and volume of cerebral infarction
  • Analysis of blood supply vessel for the district of cerebral infarction
High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (HRMRI)
  • Lesion location on the coronal position such as internal carotid artery (ICA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), and basilar artery (BA)
  • Lesion location on the axial position such as ventral, dorsal, and side location of the plaque
  • The condition of the plaque surface
  • Single or tandem lesions
  • Length of plaque, thrombus, or occlusion
  • Plaque burden
  • Remodeling index
  • Hyperintense plaque (HIP)
  • Enhancement index
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)
  • Interpretation of patch crack (fiber cap continuity)
  • Determination of fiber cap thickness
  • Determination of the degree of lumen stenosis
  • Interpretation of calcification degree and pattern (nodular vs. dispersed, superficial vs. deep), and determination of calcification index
  • Interpretation of intraluminal thrombus or plaque erosion
  • Interpretation of neovascularization or vasa vasorum
  • Detailed description of target vessels after endovascular treatment such as the stent position
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
  • The diameter of the narrowest and reference vascular vessels, and the decrement proportion of distal diameter
  • Wall Shear Stress (WSS) and Unit Time Wall Shear Stress
  • Oscillatory Shear Index (OSI) and Relative Retention Time (RRT)
  • Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR)
  • Reduction coefficient of blood pressure and downstream vascular impedance
Vessel Ultrasound (VU)
  • Interpretation of plaque properties
  • Medial thickness at the narrowest site
  • Lumen diameter of the narrowest and reference vessels
  • Lumen area of the narrowest and reference vessels
  • Flow velocity at systolic peak and diastolic peak
  • Resistance index
  • Variation of the frequency signal
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